posted: 1/27/18

We return to the states for a show for the first time in 35 months. This will also be our first official show in 15 months. This is WARPED: REVIVAL, February 3 in NY at the Manhattan Center.

WARPED is Closed
posted: 11/29/16

February 2010 - November 2016

Thank you for everything.

Please visit our Twitter page @ThisIsWARPED for more information.

This website will self destruct January 2017. Please gather everything you need by then.

CARD: wrpd109
posted: 11/8/16

WARPED Wrestling presents
Saturday, November 19, 2016
Belltime: 8:00 PM JST
Kobe Sambo Hall
Hyogo, Japan

Tickets are now on sale at warpedwrestling.com!

-Main Event Tag Team Match
#1 Contender Malcolm Dred-King & World Champion Cameron MacNichol vs. Tag Team Champions THE OUTLIERS
-Junior Heavyweight Champion Rogan MacLean vs. Anton Chase
-Johnny Raike vs. Kenji Lee
-"Pink Ranger" MARY-Jane vs. Mark Storm
-Also appearing: FKA Mr. Rottentreats JB Ronie, PKA, WTFBitch?, 2Generation and more! Plus, SHEEP SHEEP will be available for pictures with your kids.

RESULTS: wrpd108 - Pumpkin Spice
posted: 11/5/16

WRPD Tag Team Championship - Unifying Junior & Heavyweight Tag Titles
The Outliers vs. 2Generation vs. WTF Bitch?
Winners & NEW Tag Team Champions- The Outliers

WRPD Junior Heavyweight Championship
Johnny Raike vs. Rogan MacLean
Winner & NEW Junior Heavyweight Champion - Rogan MacLean

Mark Storm vs. Kenji Lee
Winner: Mark Storm

Evolution Championship
Malcolm Dred-King (c) vs. Sakuya Shizuka
Winner & NEW Evolution Champion - Sakuya Shinzuka
The title is now vacant due to Sakuya Shinzuka's retirement

WRPD World Heavyweight Championship
Cameron MacNichol vs. Mr. Rottentreats
Winner & NEW World Heavyweight Champion - Cameron MacNichol

CARD: wrpd108 - Pumpkin Spice
posted: 9/22/16

Pumpkin Spice is running wild and after a two month period of downtime, wrpd is back in Tokyo at Korakuen Hall on the final night of the month to celebrate every single championship in the company. The Outliers have been outspoken about the Tag Team Gold, and they'll get their shot as for the first time we'll crown the undisputed wrpd Tag Champs when the Junior Tag Champs, 2Generation, put their titles up against The Outliers, the winning team becoming the sole Tag Champions in the fed. Also, Sakuya Shizuka was impressive at wrpd107 and will challenge the brand new Evolution Champion, Malcolm Dred-King, in his first title defense. Don't forget that we are the home of the junior heavyweight division, as the Total J Cup 2016 winner Rogan MacLean will step into a wrpd ring as he challenges Johnny Raike for the title. Plus, it will be FnX rules as Mr. Rottentreats defends his World Title against The Dirty Mac. This is going to be hot, spicy, and toooo sweet come September 30th when we bring you the first ever "Pumpkin Spice" event! Get the full card on the forums!

posted: 8/4/16

The show is now online. Find out the full results - who is Junior Tag Champ? who is Junior Heavyweight Champ? Who won the Total J Cup? Who is Evolution Champ? WHO? Find out. Click the Results link above.

posted: 7/20/16

WRPD107 July 29 (PPV)
Aichi, Japan
Aichi Prefectural Gym

MAIN EVENT: Evolution Championship - Dog Collar Match inside a Steel Cage
Malcolm Dred-King vs. Mr. Rottentreats(c)

Total J Cup Finals
Rogan MacLean(UGWC) vs. Bronx Valescence(PoP)

Junior Heavyweight Championship
Cameron MacNichol vs. Johnny Raike(c)

Handicap Match
The Outliers vs. Anton Chase

Singles Match
Sakuya Shizuka vs. Kenji Lee

Junior Heavyweight Tag Team Titles - Six Man Tag
WTF Bitch? & Declan SalaZar vs. 2Generation(c)

posted: 7/10/16

July 15, 2016
Tokyo, Japan
Korakuen Hall

Total J Cup Semi-Finals - Triple Threat (Wrestler pinned/submitted is eliminated from TJC)
Bronx Valescence vs. Rogan MacLean vs. Mil Vidas, Jr.

It's NJFC's Bronxy V taking on 2 talents from the same company - UGWC's former Chaos Champion Mil Vidas, Jr. and the NEW UGWC Chaos Champion Rogan MacLean! Will the two UGWC talents team up, or will the title situation in their home fed cause some issues and give Bronx an even playing field? Whoever doesn't get pinned or submitted goes on to the finals!

Tag Team Match: The Outliers (Sawtooth Grin & HE WHO CORRUPTS) vs. Mark Storm & Hiroyoshi Suzuki

In regards to what Mr. Rottentreats did to Lewis Hilton-Williams and what transpired with Malcolm-Dred King at 105, Malcolm Dred-King has been banned from the building to prevent any injury on the WRPD Evolution & World Heavyweight Champion, Mr. Rottentreats. Management promises to address this ongoing feud at the event.

Will anyone step up to Johnny Raike's open challenge? Either impress him, or step up and challenge him. Any takers? We'll find out!

Singles Match
Sakuya Shizuka vs. Kuroi Taiyo

The newcomer Sakuya Shizuka takes on 1/2 the Junior Heavyweight Tag Team Champions, Kuroi Taiyo!

4 Corner Survival - #1 Contenders Match: Junior Heavyweight Title
Principe vs. Declan SalaZar vs. Cameron MacNichol vs. Kenji Lee

Four great wrestlers will compete for an opportunity at Johnny Raike's Jr Hvw Title at WRPD107!

MAIN EVENT: Evolution Championship: Mr. Rottentreats(c) vs. Anton Chase
Anton Chase cashes in the title shot he earned weeks ago! Mr. Rottentreats is coming off a Total J Cup tournament loss to Mil Vidas, Jr. With no concern for Malcolm Dred-King being at the event, will we have a clear-headed Treats? Or will "The Future" fight his way to becoming a 3 time Evolution Champion?

105 Results
posted: 7/8/16

Results from #105 are now online including Round2 matches in the Total J Cup, the debut of Sawtooth Grin and Declan SalaZar, plus Malcolm Dred-King responds to what happened to Lewis Hilton-Williams.

Updated Cards/Results from Doubleshot Weekend & More
posted: 6/22/16

The doubleshot weekend was a success! Find out who advanced to Round 2 in the Total J Cup, plus who walked out as Junior Heavyweight Champion and who walked out as World Heavyweight Champion.

#103 Recap | #104 Recap

Next up, we enter Nagasaki for the first time with Round 2 of the Total J Cup tournament, as well as two other matches featuring new talents.

#105 July 1
Nagasaki, Nagasaki Heiwa Hall
1) Declan SalaZar vs. Kuroi Taiyo
2) Cameron MacNichol vs. Sawtooth Grin
Total J Cup - Round 2 Matches
3)Adam Alpha(ICWF) vs. Bronx Valescence(NJFC)
4)Bryan Williams(NJFC) vs. Rogan MacLean(UGWC)
5)WRPD World/Evolution Champ, Mr. Rottentreats(WRPD) vs. UGWC Chaos Champ, Mil Vidas, Jr.(UGWC)

PLUS: Malcolm Dred-King to respond to the injury of Lewis Hilton-Williams at the hands of Mr. Rottentreats at a NBX Wrestling event over the weekend in Japan.

CARD: 103 & 104
posted: 6/4/16

We have a doubleshot weekend coming up June 17 and June 18. Night one will feature five Total J Cup First Round matches while night two will feature the sixth Total J Cup First Round match as well as other matches including one that was just signed minutes ago - a Junior Heavyweight Title Match as Mark Storm defends his title against rival Johnny Raike, who picked up a pinfall on Storm in the elimination match at 102. We'll also see Juvian Ramorez face the man who attacked him at 102 - Kenji Lee - when he challenges him to a FnX Grudge Match! Not only that, but Mr. Rottentreats puts his World Heavyweight Title on the line against the monster GRENDEL in our main event!

WRPD #103 June 17
Fukuoka, Hakata Star Lanes

Total J Cup - Round 1 Matches
Declan SalaZar(BFW) vs. Adam Alpha(ICWF)
Johnny Vivacious(SAP) vs. Bronx Valescence(NJFC)
Julian Savell(FA) vs. Bryan Williams(NJFC)
Rogan MacLean(UGWC) vs. GWP TV Champ, Lewis Hilton-Williams (GWP/WRPD)
WRPD Evolution&Heavyweight Champ, Mr. Rottentreats(WRPD) vs. Terry McKenna(MW)

WRPD #104 June 18
Yamaguchi, Kaikyo Messe Shimonoseki

1) Total J Cup - Round 1 Match
Yoyo Banzai(BFW) vs. UGWC Chaos Champion, Mil Vidas Jr.

2) FnX Grudge Match
Kenji Lee vs. Juvian Ramorez

3) Junior Heavyweight Championship
Johnny Raike vs. Mark Storm(c)

4) World Heavyweight Championship
Grendel vs. Mr. Rottentreats(c)

RESULTS: 6/3 Hiroshima
posted: 6/3/16

We're back with another recap of the latest WRPD event, this one from the Fukuyama Big Rose for our second show ever in Hiroshima, Japan! Attendance is just over 800 and they are packed in to see a great night of action including two qualifiers for the annual Total J Cup being hosted by WRPD in June & July, inviting the best junior heavyweight talent from all over the world to compete under the WARPED banner and battle for the prestigious Total J CUP!

Click Here for More

CARD: 6/3 Hiroshima
posted: 5/26/16

WRPD #102 June 3
Hiroshima, Japan
Fukuyama Big Rose

1) Singles Match
Cameron MacNichol vs. "Legit" CJ Thomas

2) Singles Match
Anton Chase vs. Grendel

Lewis Hilton-Williams vs. Juvian Ramorez

4) Junior Heavyweight Tag Team Titles
WTF Bitch? vs. 2Generation

Johnny Raike vs. Mark Storm vs. Mr. Rottentreats

Who Impresesd the Boss? Who is the Heavyweight Champ?
posted: 5/23/16

The 101 Recap is now posted! Click the results tab at the top of the website for the full results of this past Friday's event in Hiroshima!

Controversy Surrounding the WRPD World Heavyweight Championship Match
posted: 5/7/16

There's been some major news dropped earlier today about the WRPD World Title and the brand new champion, Jacqui M and it all heated up on Twitter of all places!

Apparently WRPD COO Patrick Kay was tipped off yesterday following the posting of the recap and upon viewing back the PPV event, he came to the realization that Mr. Rottentreats vs. Jacqui M ended at 31 minutes and 2 seconds. As a reminder, WRPD has a 30 minute time limit on all title matches unless otherwise stated. In this case, the match should have ended in a draw at the 30 minute mark, but it did not. Patrick Kay has tweeted his regret for the event taking place as it did, and told us "This was a horrible oversight. So, in order to make it right, I've booked a rematch for 101 on May 20th in Hiroshima! I know, I know. This pissed off Jacqui M and there's nothing I can do about that, but had the match gone 30 minutes and been stopped, then say it was restarted after a brief moment, we could have had a whole different scenario. Or, it could have been the same one. We don't know cause we can't go back in time and change things. So all I can do now is do what I see is the right thing, not to mention it's a hell of a main event for 101, and book Treats and Jacqui in a rematch."

Read More

Show 100 Results!
posted: 5/6/16

LIVE on Pay Per View from the Tokyo Dome in Japan, WRPD presented our 100th show. Find out exactly what went down Friday night at the Tokyo Dome in Japan when WRPD held a one-night tournament to crown our first champion in this new era! Click the RESULTS link above to check out the recap!

Show 100, Twitter War, Juvian Ramorez Returns, Total J Cup, Upcoming Tour Announcement
posted: 4/29/16

News? Rumors? We’ve got em for ya!

We are just under a week away from Show 100 live from the Tokyo Dome on Pay Per View. A few tickets are still available but the capacity crowd is filling up fast. If you’re unable to make it in person, there are other options! You can order through your cable or satellite provider, and also watch on your Roku TV and PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4 consoles starting at 7pm Japan time. That’s 6am Eastern, 5am Central, 3am Pacific. Replays will be available as will On-Demand purchases on warpedwrestling.com. The World Championship is on the line for the first time since we’ve return in this new era of WRPD Japan. Who will be left standing after a one night tournament full of world class talent?

It’s a war of words on Twitter between tournament competitors Jacqui M, Johnny Raike, and Mr. Rottentreats, to name a few. The constant back and forth in 140 characters or less will take main stage on May 6th as WRPD celebrates and concludes Japan’s annual Golden Week by crowning our top champion. Check out all of the conflicts on Twitter @ThisIsWARPED and follow all of the stars!

WRPD is very happy to announce that Juvian Ramorez has agreed to terms on a WRPD contract to compete at our 100th show, with potential for more dates after if he were to win the World Championship. WRPD officials view Juvian as a legend in our business with tons of potential to add if he chooses to compete in regular combat here. We did reach him for comment on his whereabouts the last few years and what his goals are in WRPD. “You ask where I have been these last few years? Who says I have been anywhere, I have been nowhere and I have been everywhere, since when did you start to care anyways? “ Welcome back to the family, Juvian Ramorez.

[Click Here for More]

posted: 4/9/16

WRPD is happy to announce its involvement in the annual Japanese Holiday tradition known as The Golden Week.

"The Golden Week is a collection of four national holidays within seven days. In combination with well placed weekends, the Golden Week becomes one of Japan's three busiest holiday seasons, besides New Year and the Obon week." - Japan-Guide.com (learn more)

The annual event gets extended one day with the addition of WRPD Wrestling's 100th Show live from Tokyo, Japan in our biggest venue yet - the TOKYO DOME! On this show, all championships will be on the line in this pay per view event, including the crowning of the WRPD World Heavyweight Champion!

There will be NINE matches, starting with SIX singles bouts, followed by two TRIPLE THREAT semi-final matches, and the winners of each TRIPLE THREAT will go on to battle in the main event to become this era's first ever WORLD HEAVYWEIGHT CHAMPION.

RESULTS: Show 98 from Tokyo
posted: 4/9/16

Check out the official results of what went down this past Friday in Tokyo, Japan as WRPD presented Show 98.

WRPD Show #98
April 8, 2016
Korakuen Hall
Tokyo, Japan
Attendance: 1003

Click the RESULTS link at the top of the website or on the bottom right corner to view the show recap!

Malcolm Dred-King Will End Career in WRPD
posted: 4/4/16

We are pleased to announce that former Headstrong Wrestling World Champion and pro wrestling legend, Malcolm Dred-King, has signed an exclusive contract to wrestle only for WRPD Wrestling for the foreseeable future. King has said that this is his retirement tour and that he will now finish out his career with our company. But from the looks of things, MDK's career isn't ending anytime soon. In a recent promo for his upcoming singles match with Mr. Rottentreats, King had this to say -

"I came to Warped Wrestling to say goodbye; but thanks to you Mr. Rottentreats I now realize I have come to Warped Wrestling to EVOLVE....to continue my EVOLUTION and the remapping of my legacy.....even if it's at you expense."

In addition to King's exclusive signing, we also welcome a couple new talents into the fold. Jason Richards, a longtime performer here in WRPD, has returned and will debut at one of our near future shows. We're also happy to announce the signing of newcomer Samuel Washington, a former olympic wrestler and American Patriot. With the signing of The Strong Style Wolf and The American Kings Man, things should continue to move onward and upward here at WARPED Wrestling.

News About Show 100
posted: 3/27/16

Coming May 6th, WRPD finally celebrates its 100th show. This is a long time coming and a momentous occassion. That is why we've saved crowning a World Heavyweight Champion for this show! When WRPD takes part in the week long celebration known as The Golden Week in Japan, we're going to dedicate the entire Show 100 to finding a holder for the vacant championship - a title once held by Sinc Mercier, who's not been heard from since our return a couple months ago. There will be a one night tournament and by the end of the night there will be one man or woman standing as the WRPD World Champion. Who will it be? Every person on the roster is eligible!

RESULTS: Show 97 from Tokyo
posted: 3/27/16

Merry Easter! The recap of Friday night's show in Tokyo is now up including four solid matches, a debut, and plenty of storyline progression to get you through while you're relaxing from eating too many peeps and Cadbury Eggs.

Click to Read #97 Results

posted: 3/11/16

WRPD is happy to announce its involvement in the annual Japanese Holiday tradition known as The Golden Week.

"The Golden Week is a collection of four national holidays within seven days. In combination with well placed weekends, the Golden Week becomes one of Japan's three busiest holiday seasons, besides New Year and the Obon week." - Japan-Guide.com (learn more)

The annual event gets extended one day with the addition of WRPD Wrestling's 100th Show live from Tokyo, Japan in our biggest venue yet - the TOKYO DOME! On this show, all championships will be on the line in this pay per view event, including the crowning of the WRPD World Heavyweight Champion!

No matches have been announced yet but without a doubt everyone will be fighting for a spot on this historic show.

RESULTS: Show 96 from Tokyo
posted: 3/11/16

The show literally just wrapped up as I write this. If you weren't there for the live show, keep an eye out for a premium user download for the event or a DVD release. Additionally, we've got a full write-up for you. Just click the RESULTS link above and read the recap of what happened on our second show back! We're live in Tokyo once again coming 2 weeks from today on March 25th, and the card is to be announced (soon)..

CARD: 311 Day in Japan
posted: 2/20/16

We've got our second event coming March 11th back at Korakuen Hall in Tokyo, Japan. Six exciting matches are booked for the show including the in-ring WRPD debut of Malcolm Dred-King as he takes on the hardcore Crowbar, Reginald Dampshaw III seeks revenge for his rumble elimination against Alexander "The Great", and Johnny Raike battles the man who cost him the Junior Heavyweight Title in a surprise return, former Evolution and World Champion, William Wallace - in the main event!

Opening Match: Tyler Keenan vs. Jayson Hashi

August Frost vs. Leocadio

Arik Bronson vs. Roddy Hashi

Malcolm Dred-King vs. Crowbar

Reginald Dampshaw III vs. Alexander "The Great" Redd

Main Event: William Wallace vs. Johnny Raike

Max: 2*
*to prevent sandbagging, there's only 1 RP allowed(to be counted) in the final 24 hours before deadline.
Deadline: 3/9 at 11:59pm CST (see deadline countdown clock for exact time remaining)

RESULTS: The Sun Rises for WRPD
posted: 2/19/16

Hello everyone! I am Will. I am the WARPED (or is it WRPD now?) Webmaster! I will be recapping every event and bringing you the latest updates as I'm given information. Here's what went down on the pay per view event last night. It was the return of WARPED Wrestling after an 8 month comatose state. Well, the fed closed after a lovely five years in May. We had a one off "Flash Show" in September to garner interest, and a full fledged return is here. This time, there's a few changes. Joey Matthew is still the owner, but he's not overlooking things this time around. Instead, he's given PKA, now going by a more professional name, Patrick Kay, the keys to the place and ability to run it all. Patrick has moved WARPED from the United States and taken the little indy fed that could to Japan! This is exciting.


CARD: The Sun Rises in Tokyo on February 19th
posted: 2/4/16

WRPD is back and it's time for the first card live from Tokyo, Japan to be announced. February 19th in Korakuen Hall it is the Season Premiere of WRPD in Tokyo, Japan. The opening contest will crown the first ever WRPD Junior Heavyweight Tag Team Champions as the team of WTF Bitch? takes on Kuroi Taiyo and Leocadio. An exciting triple threat one-fall match goes down as WARPED Original Crowbar takes on the beast of a man Creed and the hardcore & mysterious Omen in an FnX Rules Match where there's no rules, no count out, no rope breaks, falls count anywhere and violence is encouraged. It's not just Xtreme, it's Fucking eXtreme! The longest reigning WARPED Evolution Champion Mr. Rottentreats returns to action to face the Scarred Sentinal Kyle Cross who hasn't been seen inside of a wrestling ring for months since being put on the shelf after a vicious attack with a shovel at IWA Legacy. How will the former Evolution Champion react to being stripped of his title (as were all other titles) when he steps into Korakuen Hall? Then our main event will feature a 11 man gauntlet rumble match where you can win via pinfall, submission, or throwing your opponent over the top rope and both of their feet land on the floor. This match will crown the first ever WRPD Junior Heavyweight Champion. WRPD Boss Patrick Kay has gone to the vault and finally we will have a Junior Heavyweight Title in this company, and ten of the best junior heavyweights in the world will compete but only one man will be the champion. All that and much more goes down at Korakuen Hall in Tokyo, Japan on February 19th. You can order it LIVE on Pay Per View or on demand after the event so you can witness the action for yourself!

Korakuen Hall
Tokyo, Japan

WTF Bitch? (Roddy/Jayson Hashi) vs. Kuroi Taiyo & Leocadio

FnX Dvision Match
Omen vs. Crowbar vs. Creed

Singles Contest
Mr. Rottentreats vs. Kyle Cross

Jr HEAVYWEIGHT CHAMPIONSHIP Gauntlet Rumble - Pinfall/Submission/OverTheTopRope
Ryan "Kick" Smith vs. Cameron MacNichol vs. Arik Bronson vs. Reginald Dampshaw III vs. Dante Disaster vs. Anton Chase vs. Johnny Raike vs. Alexander "The Great" vs. Phreak vs. Mark Storm vs. Gabriel Cross

Max: 2*
*to prevent sandbagging, there's only 1 RP allowed(to be counted) in the final 24 hours before deadline.
Deadline: 2/17 at 11:59pm CST (see deadline countdown clock for exact time remaining)

WRPD Boss Promises Not To "Bull**** the Fans or Wrestlers”
posted: 1/13/16

There’s a lot of talk surrounding the return of WARPED Wrestling, now seemingly “WRPD”, the previously popular indy pro wrestling company from the midwest United States, now tackling Japan in their 2016 Season.

The new head of WRPD, Patrick Kay (formerly PKA), promises that he will not “bull****” the fans or the wrestlers who have been on board since day one. Patrick took to Twitter Tuesday night to offer the following:

“There will be champions crowned on the first show. If you don’t sign up in time you won’t be on the card and you won’t get a shot. I’m not about bull****ting the fans and I’m not about bull****ting those wrestlers who stepped up to the plate from the very beginning”

Read More on EWZine

1/15 Update: The first show has been announced to take place in Tokyo, Japan at Korakuen Hall on February 19!

Ronie’s Rasslin Services in association with WARPEDWrestling Presents: Double Down
posted: 1/6/16

Greensboro, NC (January 6th, 2016) – After an extremely successful HoliCraze Hell TOURnament, RRS owner Vaughn Ronie Jr. has decided to take the RRS brand of tournament based rasslin’ into 2016. With WARPEDWrestling resetting under the management of Patrick Kay, it has been confirmed that any winner(s) of tournaments held under the Ronie’s Rasslin’ Services banner shall be rewarded with a WARPED roster spot.

"For the last two years, I've been honored to have Vaughn Ronie Jr. as my manager. He's got a business savvy unlike many others, and he knows his stuff. That's why it just makes sense for this partnership to take place. We're taking our respective brands and combining them into one powerhouse. Together, WARPED and RRS raise the bar and redefine the word - perfection." – Patrick Kay (@OfficialPKA)


WARPED Announces Season Premiere for February 2016
posted: 1/1/16

WARPED Wrestling (wrpd) is pleased to announce that after a nine month absence, we will resume operations and return to a regular schedule as an active wrestling promotion.

It all started February 2010, and it lasted until May 2015. In February 2016, wrpd returns - and we've found a new home - Japan. wrpd returns with all new championship titles (junior heavyweight, junior tag team), and all other titles have been vacated, including the wrpd World Heavyweight, Evolution, and Tag Team. The management has a different look as well - as President Joey Matthew is not as heavily involved in this. Instead, his business partner and investor, PKA(Patrick Kay), has aligned with his manager, Vaughn Ronie Jr, and prominent Japanese wrestling promoter Hideo Hashi, to move wrpd from the United States to Japan, for the foreseeable future. We will also operate under a SEASONAL approach. Seasons will generally run a span of 9 months, with a month's break in the middle of the season. At the end of our season, Ronie's Rasslin' Service will take over and host the annual HoliCrazeHellTOURnament in November and December. We feel that with this new format, we'll give everyone a reasonable breather in between tours, and the company can recoup and reset to continue to provide the best pro wrestling out there.

Applications are now being accepted as wrpd takes on its former schedule of 2-3 shows per month, spanning different gymnasiums and moderately sized arenas throughout the country of Japan. Shows will be released on warpedwrestling.com in DVD form. Results of the show will be available in review/summary form except for live iPPVs, which will be fully written reports. We're back to it in February, so get your applications in now to make sure you reserve your spot for the official Season Premiere of wrpd.